what manuscripts did erasmus use

Where ever there were gaps in these texts (most famously at the end of Revelation), Erasmus back-translated from the Latin Vulgate into Greek to complete the text. Would love your thoughts, please comment. Check out Chris Thomas’ post here for more information. More interestingly, we have his notes in the printer’s copy in minuscule 2 where he added v. 14 in the margin, placing it before v. 13 (still following the RP versification). Beza's primary work was not that of supplying new manuscript data but rather of critically examining the data that his predecessors had provided. Like most translators, the men who produced the KJV did not travel about examining all the manuscripts directly. They actually printed their New Testament in 1514, before Erasmus, but they did not publish it immediately. The Complutensian Polyglot was a printed text from the early 16th century that was produced entirely independently of Erasmus' efforts. Still, for all that, Erasmus' had made a Greek New Testament available to scholars throughout Western Europe for the first time in ages. It is also noteworthy that none of the manuscripts used by Erasmus' were older than the 10th century, and even the one 10th-century manuscript he had he scarcely used as it differed most from the others. One of the more notorious myths about Erasmus is that he backtranslated the last 6 verses of the book of Revelation. What did Erasmus contribute to the renaissance? Most famously, in Revelation 16:5 where both the Greek and the Latin texts clearly said "O Lord, which art, and wast, the Holy One," Beza speculated that the original reading was really "O Lord, which art, and wast, and shalt be," in keeping with the formula used elsewhere (Revelation 1:4, 8; 4:8). The humanist mantra during this medieval period was the Latin, ad fontes, or “back to the sources.”Erasmus’ greatest achievement, with respect to the coming Protestant Reformation, was his work on developing an authoritative Greek text … Beza likewise noted in Luke 2:22 that his reading of "her purification" was also lacking in all the Greek manuscripts but was present in the Latin and in the Complutensian (probably through Latin influence). They waited instead to complete an Old Testament text and publish both together as a complete Bible, which was published in the early 1520s. The Textus Receptus is based on a very limited number of manuscripts, all of them eastern, and all … On which New Testament manuscripts did the KJV translators rely. This reading had been present in the two previous authorized version, the Great Bible and the Bishop's Bible, but always in brackets and smaller print to show that these words were lacking in the Greek text. Joined: Jul 13, 2004 Messages: 921 Likes Received: 102 Faith: Baptist. This Codex has been dated to the early 1500s, which is why many believe it was made specifically for Erasmus to justify his inclusion of the Comma. Theodore Beza was a Protestant scholar in Geneva who would ultimately become the successor to John Calvin. The Renaissance had brought with it a greater interest in original  documents. Erasmus famously only had 7 manuscripts on hand when he compiled the first edition of his "Novum Instrumentum omne". The king James Bible base text. He found five or six, the majority of which were dated in the twelfth century. The scholars who produced it boasted generally of the quality of their manuscripts but did not detail which copies they used, so modern scholars can only speculate which manuscripts were behind the Complutensian text. The British Codex has traditionally been identified as Codex Montfortianus. The MSS that Erasmus used are generally well known (MS 2 for example was a primary source MS that he marked up and gave to Froben the printer as the … Hence, when Erasmus got to the end of Revelation, he translated the last verses from the Latin Vulgate into Greek. At the outset, I wish to thank Robert Paul Wieland for much of the information in this article and for his assistance with the Latin translations. For the most part, Beza printed a text not very different from that of Stephanus and Erasmus before him. Still, for all that, Erasmus' had made a Greek New Testament available to scholars throughout Western Europe for the first time in ages. There was one key passage of Scripture that Erasmus’s manuscripts did not contain, however. Erasmus had before him a half-dozen manuscripts during the editing process. Stephanus introduced the Complutensian readings into his marginal notes, which were chosen by the Spanish scholars based, in part, on their assumption of the superiority of the Latin text. A: During the three and one-half centuries since the King James Version was made dozens of manuscripts have been found that were copied many centuries earlier than any manuscript used by Erasmus. I think it’s the latter. Did Erasmus translate the Bible? If you have any issues, please call the office at 385-246-1048 or email us at info@carm.org. De Jonge refuted it way back in 1980. Erasmus "collected manuscripts from all the places he could go—universities and monasteries that kept these manuscripts—brought them together, and began to collate them. Among humanists he enjoyed the sobriquet "Prince of the Humanists", and has been called "the crowning glory of the Christian humanists". #1 TC, Oct 4, 2004. Erasmus had three manuscripts of the Gospels and Acts, four manuscripts of the Pauline epistles, but only one manuscript with the Book of Revelation. He protested saying that “they had stolen the labours of his life.” The manuscripts were returned in a few days (Froude, The Life and Letters, p. 169). Critics often assert that ‘Erasmus did not have the manuscripts we have today.’ In fact, he had access to every reading currently extant, and rejected those matching the Catholic Vulgate (and the TNIV, NIV ESV, HCSB, and NASB today). A. realism, as in his painting of the Mona Lisa B. panel painting, as in his painting of The Last Supper C. two-dimensional views, as in his sketches of inventions D. angular style, as in his sketches of architectural buildings. What manuscripts did people use to create the New International Version (NIV) of the Bible and the King James Version (KJV)? The Hispanic Codex was missing the last phrase of 1 John 5:8, but the British Codex did include it. Minuscule 1 rK, Erasmus's only text source for the Book of Revelation, is a manuscript of the Andreas commentary and not a continuous text manuscript. Erasmus “collected manuscripts from all the places he could go — universities and monasteries that kept these manuscripts — brought them together, and began to collate them. This would also explain why Erasmus did not have more Greek manuscripts available to him at Basel. Erasmus used several Greek manuscript sources because he did not have access to a single complete manuscript. Please also list and name the specific, exact textual measures that you would assert were actually used by Erasmus, Cardinal Ximenes, Stephanus, Beza, and others in the making of the printed Textus Receptus editions. Of these, only Minuscule 42 and the Complutensian Polyglot contained the book of Revelation, and Minuscule 42 had some gaps in Revelation due to damage in the manuscript (though not in the same places as Erasmus' manuscripts had gaps). U Erasmus issued editions in 1516, 1519, 1522, 1527, and 1536. Let us recognize the blessing we have in such a vast treasure of biblical witnesses and be faithful to wisely use what God has given us, just as the translators before us did with what was given to them. Both versions use distinct sets of manuscripts for the Old Testament and New Testament. Erasmus considered himself to be a humanist scholar, in the sense of wanting to recover the classics. Erasmus. The manuscripts he used were copies of copies of copies of copies of copies. While in England Erasmus began the systematic examination of manuscripts of the New Testament to prepare for a new edition and Latin translation. He was faced with a late manuscript which did in fact contain the passage, and against his judgment kept his promise. How many of these was the scholar able to make use of? If those Greek NT manuscripts were "whole," why was there any need for textual physicians or editors such as Erasmus, Cardinal Ximenes, Stephanus, or Beza? Desiderius Erasmus, a Dutch Roman Catholic priest of the early 16th century, holds the honor of being the first after the invention of the printing press to publish a printed Greek New Testament. Are the manuscripts used to fashion the NIV older than those used for the KJV? What Greek mss did Erasmus use when collated his Greek text that later became known as the textus receptus (TR)? Within these editions, Stephanus expanded the available data for scholars and translators to use. Some KJV-Only folks claim there were some 5,000 known to exist in Erasmus' time. Erasmus also contributed to the Reformation by calling for reform in the Church through his various satirical works. For obvious reasons, the Textus Receptus is also referred to as the "Majority Text" since the majority (95% or more) of existing manuscripts support this reading. In other cases, such as Matt 18:11, an additional verse from the parallel passage in another In 1492 Erasmus took his vows as a canon regular at Stein, in South Holland, and was ordained to the priesthood at the age of 25. It was a reading they found only in the Latin. click, Contact | Facebook | Twitter | Store | Radio | Copying and Linking | Statement of Faith | The Warning TractCARM, PO BOX 1353, Nampa ID 83653 | 385-246-1048 | info@carm.orgHosting by EverythingsA.com  Powered by the Connectivity.Engineer Network, Christian Apologetics & Research Ministry, CARM, PO BOX 1353, Nampa ID 83653 | 385-246-1048. First, Erasmus did not just produce a Greek New Testament. Erasmus, a 15th-century Dutch theologian, working at great speed in order to beat to press another Greek New Testament being prepared in Spain, gathered together what hand-copied Greek manuscripts he could locate. Erasmus therefore drew on more sources of textual data, both Greek and Latin, than is usually realized. While the majority of Greek manuscripts lack the second half of the verse, all of the earliest manuscripts contain the longer form. You presented this information better than I did. Erasmus thus became a pioneer in the field of publishing Biblical texts, as the publication of a Greek version of the New Testament was an extraordinary and almost provocative endeavour in 1516. The manuscript to which Erasmus refers at the end of this passage is the Codex Vaticanus pat excellence, now Gr 1209, designated as B40 Erasmus regarded the text of this codex as influenced by the Vulgate and therefore inferior. Stephanus treated the Complutensian text as a manuscript, listing its variant readings alongside those of other texts he consulted. A few things stand out from this information. It should also cause us to be all the more grateful for the wealth of data we have today in our thousands of Greek manuscripts, hundreds of which are from the earliest centuries, and in our copies of numerous ancient translations in a variety of tongues like Syriac, Coptic, and yes, Latin. Erasmus was a classical scholar who wrote in a pure Latin style. In some cases, such as John 5:3b-4, a scribe mistook an explanatory marginal comment for a correction­ and copied it into the text. This explains why the Textus Receptus is very similar to the Majority Text. Yet we continually read the following type of statement from those who defend the modern versions: “This approach to the question, however, ignores the thousands of manuscripts that Erasmus did not consider. Some believe that it was copied from a manuscript that did not include the Comma, which they claim was added from the Latin. He called them the Hispanic Codex and the British Codex. Among these Greek manuscripts was only 1 poor copy of Revelation, which did not even include Revelation 22:16-21. How Do I Withdraw Money, and How Long Does This Take? In other cases, such as Matt 18:11, an additional verse from the parallel passage in another gospel was added in. There are many articles on the internet purporting to prove conclusively that Erasmus did in fact back translate from the Latin Vulgate the last few verses of Revelation. The Renaissance had brought with it a greater interest in original documents any issues, please call the office 385-246-1048! ): Structure and History of the Textus Receptus made over the Greek manuscript tradition and them. And subsequent editions of the Mona Lisa History of the New Testament wrote in a pure style! 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