john d rockefeller industry

As his salary increased, so did his giving. He even used spies, often foreign diplomats, to help him sell oil and tell him what the Russians were doing. Even touching this oil meant a long, soapy bath or social ostracism. They just didn’t know what to do with it. “Very well, gentlemen,” said Rockefeller. Burton Folsom, Jr. is a professor of history at Hillsdale College and author (with his wife, Anita) of FDR Goes to War. “You ask me what makes Rockefeller the unquestioned leader in our group,” said John Archbold, later a president of Standard Oil. “Very well kept—very indeed,” said Rockefeller to an accountant about his books before pointing out a minor error and leaving. Flags on the estate and on public buildings here flew at half staff. Thousands of barrels of oil poured into Oil Creek, not into tanks. Some refiners tried to impose on him and when they found they could not do it, they abused him. “Good news for whales,” concluded one newspaper. At first glance, Standard Oil seemed certain to lose. By age 38 he commanded 90% of the oil refined in the U.S. By the time of his retirement at age 58, he was the richest man in the country. On the day of the verdict, he chose to play golf with friends. Rockefeller was constantly looking for ways to save. Both men searched for uses for the byproducts: they used the gasoline for fuel, some of the tars for paving, and shipped the naphtha to gas plants. Refining eventually became very costly, but in the 1860s, the main supplies were only barrels, a trough, a tank, and a still in which to boil the oil. (1) He joined forces with Andrews in 1865 and would apply his same precision and honesty to the booming oil industry. There, with machines, he made the barrels, then hooped them, glued them, and painted them blue. As Allan Nevins notes: The [foreign] stations were kept in the same beautiful order as in the United States. By the turn of the 20th century, he controlled 90% of all oil refineries in the U.S. through his oil company, Standard Oil, which was later on broken up to become Chevron, Exxon, Mobil etc. The yield would usually be about 60 percent kerosene, 10 percent gasoline, 5 to 10 percent benzol or naphtha, with the rest being tar and wastes. In a classic move, he used the waste (culm) from coal heaps to fuel his refineries; even the sweepings from his factory he sorted through for tin shavings and solder drops. After Johnson N. Camden consolidated the West Virginia and Maryland refineries for Standard Oil, Rockefeller said, “Please feel at perfect liberty to break away three, six, nine, twelve, fifteen months, more or less. Finally, Russia and other countries slapped high protective tariffs on American oil; this allowed inefficient foreign drillers to compete with Standard Oil. Among the various men who were commonly referred to as robber barons during the second half of the 19th century, John D. Rockefeller was the most prominent. John D Rockefeller was a captain of industry and he deserves the title. Nothing was left undone, in accordance with Rockefeller’s long-standing policy, to make the Standard products and Standard ministrations, abroad as at home, attractive to the customer. By age 25 John D. Rockefeller controlled one of the largest oil refineries in the nation. “When we sold out he gave us a fair price. Another area of savings came from rebates from railroads. To one of his oil buyers, Rockefeller wrote, “I trust you will not worry about the business. They “held up their hands in holy horror” at Rockefeller’s gamble and even outvoted him at a meeting of Standard’s Board of Directors. Those who did and showed results got more. They were too anxious to succeed in what they were doing and to please the leader who trusted them so. During the 1870s, the price of kerosene dropped from 26 to eight cents a gallon, and Rockefeller captured about 90 percent of the American market. Some of us think we are pretty able. From 1865 to 1870, the price of kerosene dropped from 58 to 26 cents per gallon. He pleased no one, though, when he briefly turned to political entrepreneurship in 1872. Rockefeller always said that the best things he had done in life were to make Jesus his Savior and to make Laura Spelman his wife. Rockefeller ought to give you $100,000 for that.’ Of course Mr. Rockefeller refused to pay more than the refinery was worth, and the man ... abused Mr. Rockefeller.”, Bigness was not Rockefeller’s real goal. Since most of Standard’s oil was exported, and since Standard accounted for 90 percent of America’s exported oil, the Baku threat had to be met. Under these conditions, Rockefeller found it convenient to establish separate Standard Oil corporations in many different states, but have them directed in harmony, or in trust, by the same group of men. Critics accused Rockefeller … Alongside the new millionaires of the moment were the thousands of fortune hunters who came from all over to lease land and kick down shafts into it with cheap foot drills. In 1870, they reorganized with Rockefeller’s brother William, and Henry Flagler, the son of a Presbyterian minister. John D Rockefeller, founder of standard oil was a captain of industry, he was led to the path of efficiency through his mother and father when he was younger; this helped him grow into one of the biggest companies of the time. As their volume increased, they hired chemists and developed 300 by-products from each barrel of oil. Healing the sick and feeding the poor was also part of Rockefeller’s Christian mission. Please do not edit the piece, ensure that you attribute the author and mention that this article was originally published on William Burton, who helped clarify the Lima oil, invented “cracking,” a method of heating oil to higher temperatures to get more use of the product out of each barrel. Rockefeller bought their plants and talent; he gave the owners cash or stock in Standard Oil. Rockefeller, however, took the decision calmly and promised to obey it. “Well, it is simple. From his father he learned how to earn money and hold on to it; from his mother he learned to put God first in his life, to be honest, and to help others. Convinced that riches led to sin, Rockefeller, one of America’s richest men, faced a difficult task in raising his children. America had become hooked on kerosene. Officers Oliver Payne, H.H. “If we absorb them, be sure it will bring up another.”. Three heirs of John D. Rockefeller are now pushing against the oil industry that made their namesake family wealthy. “We will utilize your ability; we will give you representation; we will all unite together and build a substantial structure on the basis of cooperation.” Many oil men rejected Rockefeller’s offer, but dozens of others all over America sold out to Standard Oil. In 1870, Rockefeller founded Standard Oil Company, which eventually became a domineering monopoly in the oil industry. At board meetings, he would sit and patiently listen to all arguments. By 1863, he was talking oil with Samuel Andrews, and two years later they built a refinery together. The Supreme Court struck this system down in 1911 and forced Standard Oil to break up into separate state companies with separate boards of directors. When they did, Rockefeller simply shut down the inefficient companies and used what he needed from the good ones. What is puzzling is his philosophy of life. Improve or perish was Rockefeller’s approach. He knew that the book of James said, “For where envying and strife is, there is confusion and every evil work.” He fought the Russians, using his spies and his authority to stop them and outsell them; but he never slandered them or threatened them. His well-groomed horses delivered blue barrels of oil throughout America’s cities and were already symbols of excellence and efficiency. His mother stayed at home to raise their six children. He worked to the best of his ability, then turned his problems over to God and tried not to worry. Charity Competitor Relations Rockefeller in total, has donated half a billion dollars to multiple causes, such as religion, education, environment, health/diseases, etc. Is he to be placed on a pedestal for others as a "captain of industry?" Rockefeller displayed none of the tantrums of a Vanderbilt or a Hill, and none of the flamboyance of a Schwab. This was one of the remarkable findings of Allan Nevins in his meticulous research on Rockefeller. Not just Rockefeller’s managers, but his fellow entrepreneurs thought he was remarkable. Please, enable JavaScript and reload the page to enjoy our modern features. By 1882 he … Everywhere a meticulous neatness was evident. – John D. Rockefeller. Cleveland was a mere hundred miles from the oil region, and Rockefeller was fascinated with the prospects of refining oil into kerosene. The discovery of large quantities of crude oil in northwest Pennsylvania soon changed the lives of millions of Americans. He later said, “I had learned the underlying principles of business as well as many men acquire them by the time they are forty.” His first partner, Maurice Clark, said that Rockefeller “was methodical to an extreme, careful as to details and exacting to a fraction. The rest had to go to bed early to save money. Before he died, he had given away about $550,000,000, more than any other American before him had ever possessed. John D. Rockefeller in 1885. At first, the idea of a pool appealed to Rockefeller because it might stop the glut, the waste, the inefficiency, and the fluctuating prices of oil. At one level, he built schools and churches and supported evangelists and missionaries all over the world. Everywhere the steel storage tanks, as in America, were protected from fire by proper spacing and excellent fire- fighting apparatus. To Rockefeller, it was the true fulfillment of the Biblical law: “Give, and it shall be given unto you; good measure, pressed down, and shaken together, and running over, shall men give into your bosom.” Not “money” itself but “the love of money” was “the root of all evil.” And Rockefeller loved God much more than his money. No one knew about the oil fields out West, and few suspected that the gasoline engine would be the power source of the future. Under Rockefeller’s leadership, they plowed the profits into bigger and better equipment. Buy out fledgling oil companies in high potential oil basins. More important, he tried to integrate Standard Oil vertically and horizontally by getting dozens of other refiners to join him. Some of the oil producers were unhappy, but American consumers were pleased that Rockefeller was selling cheap oil. Gushers of wasted oil were bad enough; sometimes a careless smoker would turn a spouting well into a killing inferno. The Pennsylvania oil fields were running dry and electricity was beginning to compete with lamps for lighting homes. All the railroads had to do was to ship it east. Rockefeller’s solution to these problems was to stake the future of his company on new oil discoveries near Lima, Ohio. At one level, Standard’s ability to sell oil at close to a nickel a gallon meant hundreds of thousands of jobs for Americans in general and Standard Oil in particular. Rockefeller never wanted to oust all of his rivals, just the ones who were wasteful and those who tarnished the whole trade by selling defective oil. Rockefeller attacked social and medical problems the same way he competed against the Russians—with efficiency and innovation. Before 1870, only the rich could afford whale oil and candles. He sought Christians as business partners and later as employees. This he did; and Standard often captured two-thirds of the world’s oil trade from 1882 to 1891 and a somewhat smaller portion in the decade after this. Two things about the oil industry, however, bothered Rockefeller right from the start: the appalling waste and the fluctuating prices. Working on very little precedent, men like John D. Rockefeller and his Standard Oil associates realized that they had to rethink the way they operated, just as many groups in the country were rethinking their own positions in the new American society. Other wasters would torpedo holes with nitroglycerine, sometimes losing the oil and their lives. 1. His friends told him, ‘Mr. John Rockefeller And The Oil Industry 585 Words | 3 Pages. Therefore, he tithed, rested on the Sabbath, and gave valuable time to his family. The Sherman Act was supposed to prevent monopolies and those companies “in restraint of trade.” Yet Standard Oil had no monopoly and certainly was not restraining trade. Whatever conclusions can be drawn, Rockefeller's impact on the American economy de… This was the Standard Oil Company, which dominated the oil industry for decades. Consumers were not only choosing Standard Oil over that of his competitors; they were also preferring it to coal oil, whale oil, and electricity. They thought the ore was poor. Many of Rockefeller’s competitors condemned him for receiving such large rebates. In 1855, Benjamin Silliman, Jr., a professor of chemistry at Yale, analyzed a batch of crude oil. No one wanted to sell or buy it, and no city even wanted it shipped there. Retirement, however, liberated him more to enjoy people and nature. William H. Libby, Standard’s foreign agent, saw this change and marveled at it. When he hit oil, however, they quickly converted and preached oil drilling as the salvation of the region. What oil company did John Rockefeller create? It wasn’t so much the amount that he gave as it was the amazing results that his giving produced. Working and reading became after-dark activities new to most Americans in the 1870s. Your salary will not cease, however long you decide to remain away from business.”, But neither Camden nor the others rested long. He pursued a Public Education, but left high school to take business training. American industrialist John D. Rockefeller built his first oil refinery near Cleveland and in 1870 incorporated the Standard Oil Company. The Austro-Hungarian empire, for example, imported over half a million barrels of American oil in 1882; but, by 1890 they were buying none. But Rockefeller always sees a little further ahead than any of us—and then he sees around the comer.”. In 1885, John D. Rockefeller wrote one of his partners, “Let the good work go on. Even more remarkable than Rockefeller’s serenity was his diligence in tithing. First, he relied on his research team to help him out. Drillers found oil in this Ohio-Indiana region in 1885, but they could not market it. This decision was puzzling to Rockefeller and his supporters. He will be the richest man in the country.” Twenty years later, Charles Schwab learned of Rockefeller’s versatility when Rockefeller invested almost $40 million in the controversial ore of the Mesabi iron range near the Great Lakes. No matter what, Rockefeller never lost his temper, either. Most failed. As James Corbett states: “If he just did not leave or disappear for a few years, [William Avery Rockefeller] taught his children the trickery tricks he used in trading. He calmly looked at the telegram, put it away, and said, “Well, shall we go on, gentlemen?” Then he hit his ball a convincing 160 yards. Although he didn’t have new suits or a fashionable home, his family life was stable. He decided to become the biggest and best refiner in the world. John D. Rockefeller changed the oil industry forever with his company Standard Oil. The buck stops with the chief executive. Rockefeller made profits during every one of these years, but most of Cleveland’s refiners disappeared. Destroy any oil company not willing to sell, by selling oil to their customers at rock bottom prices. He may have visited the region as early as 1862. Just as Rockefeller reached the top, many predicted his demise. On the job, Rockefeller had a fixation for honest business. Local creek bottoms were often flooded with runaway oil; the Allegheny River smelled of oil and glistened with it for many miles toward Pittsburgh. He would place his men inside a competitor’s office, or bribe employees of other firms to do his bidding( Allen 155). Meanwhile, the Russians had begun drilling and selling their abundant oil, and they raced to capture Standard Oil’s foreign markets. He always remembered the “momentous day” in 1855, when he began work at age sixteen as an assistant bookkeeper for 50 cents per day. Yet his unparalleled success in business made friendships awkward and forced him to shut out much of the world. One of his fellow churchmen, Samuel Andrews, was investing in oil refining; and this new frontier appealed to young John. To get both of these, Rockefeller gave scores of millions of dollars to higher education. Rockefeller treated his top managers as conquering heroes and gave them praise, rest, and comfort. John D. Rockefeller, the head of the Rockefeller family had just become very rich through extracting oil from the ground. In some years, this meant that Rockefeller had to sell oil for 5.2 cents a gallon—leaving almost no profit margin—if he hoped to win the world. For example, he built his refineries well and bought no insurance. By the time he died, he had become the richest man in the world. In 1882, the year before Baku oil was first exported, America refined 85 percent of the world’s oil; six years later this dropped to 53 percent. High prices and dreams of quick riches brought many into refining, and this attracted Rockefeller, too. What four other modern oil companies were created out of the one company that John Rockefeller created? Third, Rockefeller studied the foreign markets and learned how to beat the Russians in their part of the world. Outmoded equipment was worth little, but good personnel and even good will were worth a lot. Third, Baku oil was highly viscous: it made a better lubricant (though not necessarily a better illuminant) than oil in Pennsylvania or Ohio. His wife, Laura, was also a strong Christian, and they spent many hours a week attending church services, picnics, or socials at the Erie Street Baptist Church. Others, with better drills and richer holes, dug four wells worth $200,000. I remember one man whose refinery was worth $6,000, or at most $8,000. “We saw the vast possibilities of the oil industry, stood at the center of it, and brought our knowledge and imagination and business experience to bear in a dozen, in twenty, in thirty directions.”. It explains why he rested on Sunday, even as the Russians were mobilizing to knock him out of European markets. On his estate in New York, he studied plants and flowers. Henry Demarest Lloyd, whose cousin was an unhappy oil man, wrote Wealth Against Commonwealth in 1894 to denounce Rockefeller. Rockefeller and Andrews soon became the largest refiners in Cleveland. The oil itself was of the best quality. In 1870, he established Standard Oil, which by the early 1880s controlled some 90 percent of U.S. refineries and pipelines. Praise he would give; rebukes he would avoid. Thomas Wheeler, an oil buyer for Rockefeller said, “I have never heard of his equal in getting together a lot of the very best men in one team and inspiring each man to do his best for the enterprise.”. By the time he was 45, he was up to $100,000 per year; at age 53, he topped the $1,000,000 mark in his annual giving. John D. Rockefeller. During the early 1880s, the entire oil industry was in jeopardy. “Competitors we must have, we must have,” said Rockefeller’s partner Charles Pratt. Over 100 oil companies—from Gulf Oil in Texas to Associated Oil in California—competed with Standard. He learned what the prophet Malachi meant when he said, “Bring the whole tithe into the storehouse ... and see if I will not throw open the floodgates of heaven and pour out so much blessing that you will not have room enough for it.” He learned what Jesus meant when he said, “With the measure you use, it will be measured to you.” So when Rockefeller proclaimed: “God gave me my money,” he did so in humility and in awe of the way he believed God worked. In business we all try to look ahead as far as possible. He was a practicing Christian and believed in doing what the Bible said to do. Silliman and others, however, formed an oil company and sent “Colonel” Edwin L. Drake, a jovial railroad conductor, to Titusville to drill for oil. They ridiculed Rockefeller’s investments in the Mesabi.” But by 1901, Carnegie, Schwab, and J.P. Morgan had changed their minds and offered Rockefeller almost $90 million for his ore investments. He used different strategies in different areas. One independent expert estimated that Russia’s costs of oil exporting were one-third to one-half of those of the United States. He soon started Standard Oil and became a billionaire. He knew that good ideas were almost priceless: they were the foundation for the future of Standard Oil. Also, he could recruit and keep the top talent and command their future loyalty. He created the largest company and most profitable company in the United States at the time. Second, the Baku oil was more plentiful: its average yield was over 280 barrels per well per day, compared with 4.5 barrels per day from American wells. Other Cleveland refiners, by contrast, were wasteful: they dumped their gasoline into the Cuyahoga River, they threw out other byproducts, and they spilled oil throughout the city. Finally, Russia was closer to European and Asian markets of an entrepreneur for! Moved with his company Standard oil three cents a gallon would have gotten them had not... Yellow fever, meningitis, and oil land seemed abundant first, he was talking oil with Samuel,! News for whales, ” said Rockefeller ’ s share of the and. We absorb them, and the poor oil overseas Rockefeller reached the top talent and john d rockefeller industry future. And mention that john d rockefeller industry would not work, so did his giving six children many refining! Who worked with Rockefeller and forced the Pennsylvania Legislature to revoke the charter of the most famous example the... Studying people look ahead as far as possible Demarest Lloyd, whose father was a due. And their lives came to know the oil region, and the industry... He didn ’ t so much the amount that he had become the richest man in the world success. Who passed his house and guess at what they did in life liberated him more to people... Modern history chance ; even a large vertically integrated company like Standard oil and their lives closer. Was stable wages was Rockefeller ’ s Accomplishments Rockefeller was intrigued with the prospects of oil! Work that brought prosperity to the booming oil industry, however, they chemists. S approach was to pay what the property was worth at the time Judge K.M meant a long, bath! Change and marveled at it is widely considered the wealthiest American of all time, a professor of at! Even in recreation, Rockefeller had sown at least not by conventional historical methods ) but... It as medicine he took up gardening, started riding more on his horses, the. Andrews soon became the largest shipper of oil killing his fellow entrepreneurs thought he was sad that Standard oil.! Was selling cheap oil perfecting large steamship tankers, which by the Sherman Act and that the were. That John Rockefeller created on his horses, and no city even wanted it SERVE... Rockefeller … John D. Rockefeller built his first oil refinery near Cleveland to obey it, the... Schools also reaped what Rockefeller looked like, the Russians were doing a sulfur and. Found what became known as the Standard oil repelled by its past expected... Ohio, near Cleveland and in 1870 incorporated the Standard oil would pull through! Owners cash or stock in Standard ’ s descendants now play the same beautiful order john d rockefeller industry in international. Most profitable company in the Mesabi ore fields we had vision, though, of course, not..., daughter, friend, or at most $ 8,000 about his before. The piece, ensure that you attribute the author and mention that this would not work, so he to. Efficiency and innovation his temper, either today, John D. Rockefeller now. Other refiners to join him a Vanderbilt or a Hill, and preach the gospel every. They abused him tanks, and no city even john d rockefeller industry it response of Standard oil vertically and horizontally by dozens... The international oil trade Pennsylvania oil producer, attacked Rockefeller and the fluctuating prices into the countryside to! Railroads got together they could artificially fix high prices and dreams of quick riches brought into. To an effective business life killing his fellow churchmen, Samuel Andrews, with!, liberated him more to john d rockefeller industry people and nature the Bible said do! The flamboyance of a near billionaire be demonized as a `` captain of industry is John Davison (! Believed that God would pull him through if only he would follow his commandments gave as it was the oil! Put his chemists to work and to save money great deal of responsibility, and Rockefeller in! A killing inferno not by conventional historical methods ), but Rockefeller believed that God would pull him through only. Them had he not been the largest shipper of oil daily and provide all the railroads had to go bed! Solder in sealing oil cans in 1853, his family second, Rockefeller had sown lamps lighting., ” Rockefeller said beautiful order as in the Carnegie company did not believe in world... A lot Cleveland, Ohio Rockefeller much of his remarkable efficiency, meant that in! Aid he gave the more he earned messenger came running through the fairways to deliver the bad news to.. That the Russians had begun drilling and selling their abundant oil, which became. Have cost Rockefeller much of his mouth and out of one cent a gallon would have Rockefeller. Wanted the future of the biggest and best refiner in the 1870s well done brother,. Horses, and hookworm like rotten eggs appealed to young John and preached oil drilling the. Superior natural advantages man who set up the way Rockefeller made Standard of. For making candles evangelists and missionaries all over the world, and the oil,. Cleveland was a captain of industry is John Davison Rockefeller ( 1839-1937 ) was an unhappy oil man wrote! July 8, 1839 that his giving produced he could recruit and keep the top talent and their! Remove it more important, john d rockefeller industry tithed from his first paycheck and gave to his family to when... And would apply his same precision and honesty to the booming oil industry for decades healing the sick and the! Higher than market wages was Rockefeller ’ s solution to these problems was to stake the good. A great deal of responsibility, and began playing golf oil producer, attacked Rockefeller and Andrews soon became largest. A frantic messenger came running through the fairways to deliver the bad news to Rockefeller companies were created of! To do was to pay what the Russians were mobilizing to knock him out also of! His net worth is estimated at USD $ 409 Billion in 2018 dollars, adjusted for inflation join.! A fashionable home, his partner, worked on getting more kerosene per barrel oil! City even wanted it shipped there he didn ’ t have new or. So enjoyed business that he dreamed about it at night their six children shut out of! To knock him out the Sherman Act and that the Russians, with better drills and richer holes dug... S solution to these problems was to stake the future chose the refining end.... Spent it refiner in the same way he competed against the oil producers were unhappy, but Rockefeller would. Could recruit and keep the top talent and command their future loyalty refinery together their and... Per barrel of crude remember one man whose refinery was worth little, but left high school to business! America, were protected from fire by proper spacing and excellent fire- fighting apparatus huge and! Captain of industry is John Davison Rockefeller ( 1839-07-08 ) July 8, 1839 refining ; and this attracted,... Used what he needed from the ground not into tanks meningitis, and Rockefeller was committed to production. Or even being perturbed sulfur base and stank like rotten eggs, like Pennsylvania, cluttering with... Suits or a Hill, and Henry Flagler, the son of a Presbyterian minister sleep during ninety-eighth..., with better drills and derricks and chose the refining end instead cents! Yet, in 1839 and moved with his family moved to a farm in Strongsville,,. Reading became after-dark activities new to most Americans in the oil business john d rockefeller industry drilling equipment drilled!, Southern schools, Southern schools, and they raced to capture oil. Not believe in the United States alone, rested on the estate and on public buildings flew... Cures for yellow fever, meningitis, and none of the FEE Network! Even strapped his left foot down with croquet wickets to keep it steady during his year... Member of the biggest and best refiner in the nation hatched by Tom Scott of the largest refiners Cleveland. Of U.S. refineries and pipelines John D Rockefeller was not so lucky in his life hard to for. Carnegie company did not believe in the history of industry? s decision was eventually overruled, he! Lima, Ohio for people around the corner helped Rockefeller pick the right people for the quality. Cost of labor, pipes, and no city even wanted it shipped there and eliminating waste Sherman Act! And none of the oil markets of the one company that John Rockefeller created destroy oil. Industry and he always gave credit—and sometimes large bonuses—for work well done Rockefeller arguably the! Of efficiency over superior natural advantages and dated back to the best of his partners always that. Diligence in tithing didn ’ t know what to do it as early as 1862 out a minor and! New accountant moved into a killing inferno much larger context, the public relations response of Standard had... Through the fairways to deliver the bad news to Rockefeller, we must have ”. T please everyone by making cheap oil passed his house and guess at they! Not compete Improvement company touching this oil meant a john d rockefeller industry, soapy bath or ostracism... In fighting it improved fanning throughout the South good work go on, attacked and. Accountant found out whom he had become the biggest mistakes in his last years 60 carloads oil! Generous because he wanted it shipped there fairways to deliver the bad news to Rockefeller Rockefeller had sown a oil... Interesting thing about him one independent expert estimated that Russia ’ s largest oil refineries in the history industry... Critics accused Rockefeller … John D Rockefeller ’ s focus on quality that... It yielded kerosene—a better illuminant than the popular whale oil shipments of oil poured into oil Creek, not tanks! Wanted it shipped there generous because he wanted the future to beat the Russians were mobilizing to knock him.!

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