, The style often integrated painting, molded stucco and wood carving, and quadratura, or illusionist ceiling paintings, which were designed to give the impression that those entering the room were looking up at the sky, where putti and other figures were gazing down at them. Expressionist architecture was an architectural movement that developed in Northern Europe during the first decades of the 20th century in parallel with the expressionist visual and performing arts. However, it tended to be more ornate and elaborate overall. Castles and fortified walls provide the most notable remaining non-religious examples of medieval architecture. None of which would have been possible without the advances of Roman engineering and construction or the newly found marble quarries, which were the spoils of war; inventions like the arch and concrete gave a whole new form to Roman architecture, fluidly enclosing space in taut domes and colonnades, clothing the grounds for imperial rulership and civic order. Indus. One of the most notable Minoan contributions to architecture is their inverted column, wider at the top than the base (unlike most Greek columns, which are wider at the bottom to give an impression of height). A common characteristic of the Minoan architecture were flat roofs.  A characteristically Baroque form of ornamentation, the cartouche is an oval panel with crested or scrolled borders, used on palace, house and church façades as a framing device for a monogram (of the owner, the architect or the person to whom it is dedicated), cresting or coat of arms, but also as a purely decorative infill motif. In the United States, Philip Johnson and Henry-Russell Hitchcock treated this new phenomenon in 1931 as if it represented a new style – the International Style, thereby misrepresenting its primary mission as merely a matter of eliminating traditional ornament. In a broader sense, modern architecture began at the turn of the 20th century with efforts to reconcile the principles underlying architectural design with rapid technological advancement and the modernization of society. As time paced forward various civilizations conjured different architectural designs, materials, and layouts to best suit their needs as a society. For example, Doric order capitals were painted with geometric and leaf patterns.. Another significant site is Ollantaytambo. Parthian innovations fully flowered during the Sassanid period with massive barrel-vaulted chambers, solid masonry domes, and tall columns. During the Mauryan Empire and Kushan Empire, Indian architecture and civil engineering reached regions like Baluchistan and Afghanistan. With the reign of his son Fasilides, most of these foreigners were expelled, although some of their architectural styles were absorbed into the prevailing Ethiopian architectural style. These works with their clean lines and symmetry, were revolutionary in a country still enamoured with mullion windows, crenellations and turrets. The Renaissance spread to France in the late 15th century, when Charles VIII returned in 1496 with several Italian artists from his conquest of Naples. Chinese architecture stresses the visual impact of the width of the buildings. The temples of Aihole and Pattadakal are well-known early examples of Hindu temple architecture, when the temple was taking on its final form. Notable Islamic architectural types include the early Abbasid buildings, T-type mosques, and the central-dome mosques of Anatolia. "The Age of Rococo." One example is the use of yellow roof tiles; yellow having been the Imperial color, yellow roof tiles still adorn most of the buildings within the Forbidden City. With the rise of various European colonial empires from the 16th century onward through the early 20th century, the new stylistic trends of Europe were exported to or adopted by locations around the world, often evolving into new regional variations. , Rococo features exuberant decoration, with an abundance of curves, counter-curves, undulations and elements modeled on nature. In his summary, "The World of Textiles", North Carolina State's Tushar Ghosh provides one example: the Denver International Airport's roof is a fabric structure that was influenced by and/or resembles the tipis of local cultures. Greek architecture was typically made of stone. Part of the Royal Portal, circa 1145–1155, of the Chartres Cathedral (Chartres, France), Stained glass windows of the Sainte-Chapelle in Paris, completed in 1248, mostly constructed between 1194 and 1220, North transept windows, circa 1230–1235, in the Chartres Cathedral, The Church of Our Blessed Lady of the Sablon, built in the Sablon/Zavel district in the historic centre of Brussels (Belgium), built between the 13th-15th centuries, The Brussels Town Hall, built between 1402 and 1420 in the famous Grand Place, Altar in the knight's chapel in Haßfurt am Main (Bavaria, Germany), Statues in the central tympanum of the Chartres Cathedral, about 80 km (50 miles) southwest of Paris, Detail of The Christchurch Gate of the Canterbury Cathedral from Canterbury (England, the UK), Foliage on capitals at the Southwell Minster (Southwell, England), Flamboyant Gothic cross-windows of the Hôtel de Sens (Paris). During the British Raj, a new style of architecture known as the Indo-Saracenic revival style developed, which incorporated varying degrees of Indian elements into the British style. There were many monasteries built, equalling about 45,000. Hōryū-ji (literally Temple of the Flourishing Law), a Buddhist temple in Ikaruga (Nara Prefecture), built in the 7th century, Kinkaku-ji (literally "Temple of the Golden Pavilion"), a Zen Buddhist temple in Kyoto, originally built in 1397, Interior of the Kumamoto Castle in Kumamoto (Kumamoto Prefecture), built in 1467, demolished in 1877 and rebuilt in 1960, The garden of the Ninna-ji temple in Kyoto (Kyoto Prefecture), an example of a Japanese garden. Having a written language allows civilizations to record their history for posterity. A common characteristic of Minoan palaces were frescos. Throughout the medieval period, Aksumite architecture and influences and its monolithic tradition persisted, with its influence strongest in the early medieval (Late Aksumite) and Zagwe periods (when the rock-cut monolithic churches of Lalibela were carved). Because of the need to rebuild Japan after World War II, major Japanese cities contain numerous examples of modern architecture. Windows gained a cross-shape for more than decorative purposes: they provided a perfect fit for a crossbowman to safely shoot at invaders from inside. Portuguese soldiers had initially come in the mid-16th century as allies to aid Ethiopia in its fight against Adal, and later Jesuits came hoping to convert the country. Ancient Chinese tomb model representations of multiple story residential towers and watchtowers date to the Han Dynasty (202 BC–220 AD). The result is an evolving range of architectural production that, although it is difficult to identify a single representative style, nonetheless retains a certain amount of continuity across history. Such advances in design allowed cathedrals to rise taller than ever, and it became something of an inter-regional contest to build a church as high as possible. , The word ziggurat is an anglicized form of the Akkadian word ziqqurratum, the name given to the solid stepped towers of mud brick. The Counter-Reformation stated that architecture, painting and sculpture would play an important role in transforming Rome into a truly Catholic city. Neolithic people in the British Isles built long barrows and chamber tombs for their dead and causewayed camps, henges flint mines and cursus monuments. Or king, was similar in style to the Han Dynasty the upper walls mudbrick... 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